Abu Simple Temple
Abu simbel, The great temple of Ramsses2 ,the massive rock temple about 230km south of Aswan city, King Ramses II built the temple (1264-1244 BC) around 20 years to finish the work inside the temples, the second temple for his favourite wife Nefertari ,Ramses built over six temples at Nubia to control the Egypt’s southern borders.
The Temple was forgotten until 1813, when Jean Louis found the facade of the temple because the temple was covered by sand.
Later on 1817, the Italian man Giovanni Belzoni came with the helps with the Nubian peoples to move the sand to allow him to enter the temple.
The temple dedicated to god Ra-Horakhaty, ptah and Amun, the facade of the temple 35 meters high and four huge seated statues of the great king Ramesses2 around 20 meters high decorated the entrance of the temple .
The hypostyle hall supported by eight statues for Ramesses II four in each side , and walls decorated by the famous battle which is Kadesh ,and its battle ended by first peace treaty in the history , and the Egyptian king Ramses II married the daughter of king Hattusil 111 king of kadesh.
Inside the sanctury had four statues for Ramses II, Amun,Ra-horakhaty and Ptah the architect built the axe of the temple in the way of the sun to let the ray of the sun enter inside the temple to illuminate of the face of Ramesses two time in the year 22 October, 22 February (his birthday and coronation day ).
The sun illuminated three faces from the four statues except Ptah (god of underworld).
Saving the temples
during building the high dam at Aswan the water of Nasser Lake(the artificial lake ) covered all Nubian temples ,including Abu simple ,so the Egyptian government by help of Unesco they saved the temples ,six temples, by dismantling them and rebuilt them on higher places ,,,when they start to save Abu simple temple they faced by a big problem that the temple was carved in a mountain ,,so they built a concrete doom and they covered it by sand to looks like a natural mountain and they rebuilt the pieces which cut inside this doom ,this job took 4 years,<1964-1968>
This temple gives us a full idea about the great builder Ramses II and the art during the great Egyptian history.